Changi Airport welcomes the arrival of Ethiopian Airlines

January 8, 2014

EAL-ChangiAirport1

By Theodore Koumelis

SINGAPORE – Changi Airport Group (CAG) welcomed the arrival of Ethiopian Airlines, the latest addition to the family of airlines operating at Singapore Changi Airport. The East African carrier will operate a thrice-weekly service between Singapore and the capital city of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia via Bangkok, utilising the 234-seat Boeing 767-300 aircraft in a two-class configuration.

To commemorate this new link, Ethiopia’s State Minister for Trade and Industry, Mr. Taddesse Haileand Singapore’s Senior Minister of State for Trade and Industry and National Development, Mr. Lee Yi Shyan, were on board the inaugural flight that landed at Changi yesterday at 1811 hours. They were accompanied by the Chief Executive Officer for Ethiopian Airlines, Mr. Tewolde Gebremariam, among other senior government showing strong support for bilateral Ethiopia-Singapore ties, the Ambassador of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to Singapore, His Excellency Seyoum Mesfin, was also present to welcome Ethiopian’s first flight to Singapore.

The emerging African market Singapore shares strong economic ties with Africa. The African continent’s accelerated growth in recent years has stimulated domestic consumption, making it one of the world’s fastest growing regions. Trade flows between Singapore and Africa has flourished at a compounded annual growth rate of 20% since 2009, and registered S$13.8 billion in value last year.

Singapore is also Africa’s largest ASEAN investor, with significant investments in the sectors of consumer products, water preservation and construction. Similarly, African companies have been progressively using Singapore as a springboard to venture into the
burgeoning Asia-Pacific region.

In terms of passenger movements, point-to-point traffic between Africa and Southeast Asia has grown steadily over the past five years. More than 1.08 million passengers travelled between these two regions in the 12 months ending September 2013, an increase of about 45% from the corresponding period five years ago.

CAG’s Executive Vice President for Air Hub & Development, Mr. Yam Kum Weng, said, “We are proud to welcome one of Africa’s fastest growing and most reputable airlines to Changi Airport. Ethiopia is one of Africa’s largest economies, with its GDP growing faster than the rest of the continent. More significantly, the cooperation between Ethiopian Airlines and Singapore Airlines not only connects Singapore with Ethiopia but also on a broader scale, Southeast Asia, Southwest Pacific with the entire Eastern and Central Africa region. This cooperation will further strengthen Singapore’s air hub position.”

Mr. Tewolde Gebremariam, CEO of Ethiopian Airlines, said, “Singapore’s strength and competitiveness as a well-connected aviation hub is the primary reason behind our decision to utilize Singapore as the gateway to Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific. Code share agreements with Star Alliance partners such as Singapore Airlines will offer Ethiopian Airlines the opportunity to extend our network to Australia. This new connection will contribute to the strengthening of trade, investment and tourism ties between a booming Ethiopia and a highly developed, innovative and business-friendly Singapore.”

Addis Ababa is a new city link for Changi Airport and follows the addition of Mandalay, Kalibo, Jinan and Lijiang to Changi’s network this year.

Discover the wonders of Africa

Holiday-makers in Singapore who are looking for exciting and exotic destinations can now consider exploring Ethiopia’s stunning natural landscapes and the unique cultural experiences from the birthplace of coffee. The carrier’s new Singapore service provides travelers with unparalleled access to explore more points in the African continent such as Nairobi, Lagos, Accra, Luanda and Dar es Salaam.

With an end-of-day departure out of Singapore and Addis Ababa, Ethiopian’s flight schedule is also specially timed to meet business travel needs. Business travelers will appreciate the early morning arrival into Addis Ababa to connect to 50 major cities in the airline’s dense intra-Africa network.

 


Ethiopia by Helicopter

December 2, 2013

by 

Tropic Air is a small, privately owned business, set up in the early 1990′s with the vision to open up northern Kenya to visitors. Today, Tropic Air is one of Kenya’s best recognized and leading air charter company, operating single engine Cessna aircraft and helicopters, offering trips in Kenya, Uganda, Congo, Rwanda and Ethiopia. Extraordinary Journeys is excited to be able to partner with Tropic Air to provide unforgettable trips to Ethiopia and Kenya by helicopter. This trips not only provide stunning scenery and incredible access to remote locations with expert pilot/guides but also offer travelers the chance for  spontaneous and authentic interactions with local communities you meet along the way. To book contact http://www.admastravel.com

Day 1 ~ Addis Ababa

Sheraton Addis

Your expedition begins in the Ethiopian capital – Addis Ababa.  Addis Ababa is the fourth largest city in Africa – a melting pot of cultures and a bizarre combination of past and present – Italian Fascist buildings sit alongside luxurious high rise hotels; priests in medieval robes mix with African bureaucrats and wandering minstrels singing songs that are centuries-old. Around the corner, neon signs light up modern bars and discotheques beat with the latest global hits.

Here you will meet your pilot (one of three who run all of the Ethiopia trips) and your helicopter. Depending on your arrival time, there is plenty to do during the day with options to enjoy a city tour and go to the National Museum, which houses the 3.5 million year-old skeleton of ‘Lucy’ – the oldest hominid ever found. Traditional song houses and local markets can also be visited. The Ristorante Castelli restaurant is a great option for dinner -serving excellent Italian cuisine.

Day 2 & 3 ~ Lalibela via Blue Nile Gorge

Z1C6876_LR-2

Today you depart for Lalibela, following the Blue Nile Gorge through truly stunning landscapes. In the company of an expert guide, you willvisit some of the famous 12th century rock-hewn churches.

You will arrive in Lalibela mid morning. In the company of a local guide, you will visit some of the famous 12th century rockhewn churches. The city of Lalibela is, together with Axum, one of the two most important holy cities in Ethiopia, due to its famous rock-hewn churches, the largest monolithic rock-hewn buildings in the world. The city and its churches are considered have been declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

The city was constructed by King Lalibela of the short ruling Zagwe dynasty after the fall of the Axumite Empire around the 11th century. The churches were carved out of the red granite rock of the Lasta Mountains in only 40 years. Many of the churches are connected with each other by means of narrow underground passages. In the caves and passages and in the churches, priests and monks can be found reading the Holy Bible and praying. Each church has its own unique architectural style and most are decorated with well-preserved paintings. The most elaborate and most famous church is the Bete Giorgis church, in the shape of a perfect Greek cross.

Today, it is not only the physical structures that remain frozen in time, but a place of pilgrimage for many of Ethiopia’s Orthodox Christians.

Overnight at Mountain View Hotel. P1000533

Day 4

This morning you head north enjoying a spectacular flight following the course of the Tekeze River.  The Tekezé River has created one of the world’s deepest canyons – over 2000 feet in places.

In mid-morning you will land in the Simien Mountains. At 4,543 meters (almost 15,000 feet), the Simiens are Ethiopia’s highest range, home to the fascinating Gelada baboon, elusive Ethiopian Wolf and the endemic Walia Ibex. A vehicle will meet you, and you will spend time enjoying the unique life in these remote mountains.

Accommodation for the next 4 nights will be at Gheralta Lodge, your base to explore the Siemen Mountains, the Dankil Depression and Tigray.

Day 5

With a picnic breakfast on board, you embark on a dawn flight to the Simiens. With the sun behind you, the jagged spires and pinnacles are an impressive sight. Lammergerie vultures are found exclusively in mountainous terrain, and we often have great sightings of them soaring overhead. After a picnic breakfast, you will IMG_6562

continue onto the fascinating town of Aksum – famous for Stellae (granite monuments). The ruins of the a ncient city of Aksum mark the heart of a ncient Ethiopia, when the Kingdom of Aksu m was the most powerful state between the Eastern Roma n Empire & Persia. Pilgrims still journey to Aksum and the majority of Ethiopians passionately believe that the Ark of the Covenant resides here. In the afternoon you will explore the Tigray region and some of its incredible rock-hewn churches, believed to date back to the 6th  or 7th Century.

Overnight at Gheralta Lodge.

Day 6

This morning you head for the Danakil Depression – a place of acid lakes, volcanoes and giant salt pans. More than 100 meters (330 feet) below sea level, the Danakil Depression is peppered with colourful sulphurous springs, acid lakes, active volcanoes and giant IMG_6498salt pans. Some of the hottest temperatures known to man are found here in the Danakil Depression. Unlike anything else on this planet, this extraordinary place is located on a geographical fault within the Great Rift Valley, at the Horn of Africa. On route you may catch sight of camel trains belonging to the Afar nomadic people. You will also visit Irta Ale a volcano in a state of continuous eruption since 1967  and the most famous of the Danakil Depression’s volcanoes.

Overnight at Gheralta Lodge.

Day 7

Today you will continue your exploration of the churches of the Tigray region. The amazing rock-hewn churches are perched on top of steep hills, or carved into cliff faces only accessible by narrowDanakil_2foot paths which scale up the edge of the hills. Very little is known about the origin of the 120 year old rock churches or their architectural history. Local tradition attributes most of the churches to the 4th century Aksumite Kings, Abreha and Atsbeha. Inside many of the churches are colourful frescoes – hundreds of years old. The priests who live on these mountains follow a simple life that revolves around the Orthodox Christian calendar.You exploration will be lead by an exception local guide who provides unique access to the churches and their ancient artifacts. Only by helicopter is it possible to see all eight of the regions most famous churches in a day (they are several hours on foot apart from one another).

Overnight at Gheralta LodgeIMG_4665

Day 8

Today you will return to Addis Ababa – the final journey of our adventure follows the western wall of the Great Rift Valley. Spend a night at the Sheraton Hotel before departing the next day.

In addition to this program we also have an 8 day Kenya  by helicopter program and 3 day helicopter program in Northern Kenya which can be built into a longer trip. We also welcome the opportunity to work with you to build your perfect trip!

For more information email admastravel@gmail.com

IMG_4579


Ethiopia the first place of God stepped in the world

July 23, 2013

 

Ethiopia-Tourism-Attraction-

It is also known as Tis Abay in the Amharic language which if translated to English, means “the smoking water” named drawn from the fact that the dropping of the water creates a smoke-like bounce of water droplets in a fantastic and magnificent scene. The Blue Nile Falls is considered to be one of Ethiopia’s best known tourist attractions site in the country.

The Blue Nile Falls is located at the upper course of the Nile River about 30 km downstream from the town of Bahir Dar which is about some 319.67 kilometers total in distance from the national capital, Addis Ababa.

The waterfalls consist of four main streams that is originally different from a ooze in the dry season to over 400 metres wide in the rainy season as a result of the diversion of Lake Tana which has to some extent reduced the variation of the water since 2003 in pursuant of a hydro-electric station by the Ethiopian government but nevertheless, the falls is still at its best offering a good atmosphere for those who visit the place.

palace-main-Ethiopia

This has caused a decrease in the flowing water of Blue Nile Falls, but the fact still remains that the full beauty of the falls can still be appreciated during Sundays and holidays because the hydroelectric station is believed to only operates during weekdays and for this reason, it is advisable for tourist to visit the place on Sundays or Ethiopian public holidays.

Ecological experts say the Blue Nile Waterfalls has isolated the ecology of Lake Tana from the ecology of the rest of the Nile and this has helped played a role in the evolution of the endemic fauna of the Lake Tana.

Blue Nile Falls-420x0 1 The flora around the falls can also be appreciated; there are many plant species endemic only to that area. The Blue Nile Falls are also enriched with different types of wildlife that can only be found in Ethiopia as one of the best scenes in Africa.

The Lake Tana itself is home to many island monasteries which were believe to be built by the missionary man Manuel de Almeida from Portugal. Some of the monasteries can be visited after a short boat ride on the Island and it also has many decent restaurants and hotels along its shores.

From a short distance downstream of the falls, is the first ever stone bridge (Portuguese Bridge) constructed in Ethiopia which was believed to have been built under the command of the legendary Emperor, Susenyos in 1626, serving as a bonus to tourists who visit the Blue Nile Waterfalls.

According to Manuel de Almeida (1580–1646) a native of Viseu, from the Kingdom of Portugal, who entered at an early age into the Society of Jesus, and went out as a missionary to India, Ethiopia and Eritrea particularly in the Lake Tana area in Ethiopia, said stone for making lime had been found nearby along the tributary Alata, and a craftsman who had come from India with Afonso Mendes, the Catholic Patriarch of Ethiopia then supervised the construction of the historic bridge which some call the Portuguese Bridge.

The Blue Nile Falls has an enormous height of 37 to 45 meters or around 150 feet and its width is estimated at about half a mile, making watching the river water drop down the waterfalls truly breathtaking for people who visit the place.

blue_nile_falls-Ethiopia

Reaching the Blue Nile Falls is easy as there are various trips that can be arranged as it is a main tourist spot in Ethiopia. There are many locals that make their income from the benefits of tourism; many are selling food and drinks like calabashes and sodas.

The best of accommodation await any tourist who visits the Blue Nile Falls as there are hotels available at a few kilometers away from the falls.

But remember that if you are planning to visit the Blue Nile Waterfalls, it is recommendable that you wear comfortable clothes as the trail on the way to the falls is quite bumpy and not that comfortable but it will be a tour that will live in your memory forever.

Issaka Adams / NationalTurk Africa Tourism News


Dreamliner fire closed London Heathrow Airport

July 12, 2013

EAL

Ethiopian Airlines issues a statement about their B787 incident at London Heathrow Airport: Today on Friday, 12 July 2013, smoke was detected from Ethiopian Airlines B787 aircraft with registration number ET-AOP, which was parked at London Heathrow airport for more than eight hours.

The aircraft was empty when the incident was observed.

The cause of the incident is under investigation by all concerned.

Further statement will be issued in due course, as we receive more information.

London’s Heathrow airport closed to flights following a fire involving a Boeing Co. (BA) 787 jet operated by Ethiopian Airlines Enterprise, while a second Dreamliner was forced to abandon a trip with technical issues. Shares of the U.S. planemaker had their biggest drop in almost two years.

The aircraft, Boeing’s newest model and beset by battery-related fire incidents that grounded the global fleet earlier this year, was sprayed with fire-retardant foam after the Heathrow event. No one was on board and there were no injuries.

Takeoffs and landings were suspended at Europe’s busiest hub for about an hour while emergency services attended the jet, before flights resumed later with significant delays. The cause of the fire is unknown, Heathrow Ltd. (FER) said on its Twitter feed, with television pictures appearing to show damage on the rear upper fuselage close to the aircraft’s tail.

“We’re aware of the 787 event at Heathrow airport and have Boeing personnel there,” the Chicago-based company said via Twitter, adding that it had sent people to the scene. “We’re working to fully understand and address this.”

Ethiopian Air said the aircraft had been parked at Heathrow for more than eight hours before smoke was detected. “The cause of the incident is under investigation by all concerned,” Henok Teferra, a spokesman for the carrier, said in a text message.


What do you hate most about eating on planes?

June 27, 2013

Airline-food-Cyprus-Airwa-007

What do you hate most about eating on planes? Is it the soggy sandwiches? The murky liquid that masquerades as coffee?

Or maybe just trying to meet the logistical challenge of eating from a crammed tray without knocking over your drink or flinging your cutlery onto the floor? In a survey in the US, the quality of food ranked surprisingly low among complaints about airline food. The YouGov survey of 1000 travelers found only seven percent buy a meal onboard when travelling on a non-catered airline, but poor-quality food was not the issue.

Limited food options ranked much higher on the complaint scale, along with the cost of what was on offer. Smaller numbers complained that the portion sizes on planes were too small or that there was a lack of healthy options. Personally, I think the worst aspect of airline food, particularly on long international journeys, is the repetition.

The same old salad with strange smoked meat in the corner, the same bread roll, cheese, crackers and chocolate mousse surrounding … oh joy… chicken and rice again.

If it’s not chicken and rice, it’s beef and rice. The food up the front is much more interesting, but less than 20 per cent of passengers are eating that – and even business class passengers get chicken and rice. Having had that rant, I do think we can be rather fussy when it comes to airline food, especially when we’re flying to the other side of the world for under $1500 return.

We love to complain about what we’re served and post dodgy pictures on social media but the logistics of serving hot food to hundreds of passengers, sometimes many hours after take-off, are considerable. And we’ve all seen passengers imbibe their plane fare in ‘free’ alcohol, just because they can.

The editor of airline review website Airreview.com, Jules Lorkin, says catering is a real headache for airlines, as it is expensive to produce, adds weight on aircraft and generates the most complaints. “If you ask passengers who don’t fly regularly how their flight was, the thing that sticks most in minds is often the inflight food,” he says.

Adding to the challenges of serving food at altitude are the complications of serving dozens of different types of meal on one flight, to cover religious beliefs, medical conditions, health fads and general fussiness. Singapore Airlines, for example, now offers more than 30 special meal options; a list that makes fascinating reading.

There are six different types of vegetarian meal – who knew vegies were so complicated? – along with meals that are low fat, low fibre, low lactose, low salt or low calorie.

If you’re anti-carbohydrates, they’ve got you covered. And if you get an ulcer from trying to work out what sort of meal you need, they can handle that too. Cathay Pacific revealed recently it is now serving more than 1.7 million special meals a year. Demand for healthier meals is the biggest factor, with low calorie, low cholesterol and low salt meals in hot demand.

Gluten intolerance is also on the rise, with gluten-free meal requests jumping more than 100 per cent in four years. It’s certainly gotten more complicated, but has there been any improvement in the fare?

In the US study, which only related to short flights, 27 per cent thought airline food had decreased in quality over the past couple of years, while 20 per cent believed it was unchanged and a positive-thinking seven per cent said it had improved. Jules Lorkin believes the most noticeable change is that quantity has been reduced in a bid for better quality.

Airlines that used to serve up full meal trays are now dishing up smaller portions, perhaps with the entrée and dessert cut back but a better hot dish.

Lorkin believes airlines have split into two camps: those that use their food as a sales tactic and those that see it as a necessary evil and constantly chip away at the costs.

“Those carriers which use inflight meals for sales certainly ramp up the celebrity chef element and promise that dining at 30,000 feet will ‘never look so good’,” he says.

“However, it is hard to believe that celebrity chefs like Luke Mangan, Heston Blumenthal or Neil Perry have seen what our meal trays actually look like down the back of the plane.”

Best of a bad lot?

It’s hard not to eat out of boredom when you’re strapped into a seat, so nutritionist Zoe Bingley-Pullin recommends ordering a low calorie meal. Eating high-fibre foods is the most important factor in avoiding digestive ails caused by sitting still, along with staying well hydrated, she says. Bingley-Pullin, of Nutritional Edge in Sydney, tells her clients to drink two litres of water before getting on the plane and to keep drinking (water, that is) throughout the flight.

Source: smh.com.au

Ethiopian Airlines Awarded Best Airline Staff Service in Africa

June 20, 2013

EAL

The 2013 World Airline Awards were announced at the Paris Air Show yesterday and  Ethiopian Airlines (Ethiopian), the fastest growing airline in Africa, was  awarded as the Best Airline Staff Service in Africa.

The World Airline  Awards are presented by Skytrax, the world’s largest airline and airport review  site. Awards are bestowed based on reviews from more than 180 million completed
customer surveys measuring passenger experiences on the ground and onboard.  Ethiopian’s outstanding customer service propelled the airline to the top of the  Africa category.

“This award is a testament to the hard work of  Ethiopian’s more than 7,000 employees,” said Tewolde Gebremariam, CEO of  Ethiopian. “We are proud that the training and development of our staff is being recognized and pledge that we will continue to provide the best possible travel experience to our customers.”

Ethiopian is currently implementing a  15-year strategic plan, Vision 2025, which emphasizes five-star service delivery, along with state-of-the-art technology and a modern fleet. The World Airline Award affirms that Ethiopian is on the right track.

About

Ethiopian Airlines Ethiopian Airlines (Ethiopian) is the fastest growing  airline in Africa. In its almost seven decades of operation, Ethiopian has  become one of the continent’s leading carriers, unrivalled in efficiency and operational success.

Ethiopian commands the lion’s share of the pan-African passenger and cargo network, operating the youngest and most modern fleet to more than 74 international destinations across five continents. The Ethiopian fleet includes ultra-modern and environmentally friendly aircraft such as the Boeing 787, Boeing 777-200LR, Boeing 777-200LR Freighter, and Bombardier  Q-400 with double cabin. In fact, Ethiopian is the first airline in Africa to  own and operate these aircraft.

Ethiopian is currently implementing a 15-year strategic plan, entitled “Vision 2025,” which will see the airline become the leading aviation group in Africa with seven business centers:
Ethiopian Domestic and Regional Airline; Ethiopian International Passenger  Airline; Ethiopian Cargo; Ethiopian MRO; Ethiopian Aviation Academy; Ethiopian In-flight Catering Services; and Ethiopian Ground Service.

Ethiopian is a multi-award-winning airline and a member of Star Alliance since 2011, registering an average growth of 25 percent in the past seven years.


Ethiopia ignores war threat from Egypt in order to ratify Nile Treaty

June 14, 2013

ethiopia nile

By Dr. Wolfgang H. Thome

 

The longstanding row over the use of the Nile waters, for which the dictates of the 1929 and 1959 treaties between Britain and Egypt were shoved down the throats of the Nile basin countries on independence, resulted last year in the required number of members of the Nile Basin Initiative to sign on to a new negotiated treaty to make it legally binding, inspite of Egypt and Khartoum Sudan refusing to accept the majority verdict. Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Ethiopia signed the new treaty while new member South Sudan indicated they too would add their signature, possibly ahead or alongside the meeting next week when the 21st Council of Ministers session will take place in Juba.

In recent weeks did Egypt sound the war drums in an attempt to intimidate Ethiopia not to ratify the new treaty and halt their plans for the construction of a new hydro electric power plant on the Blue Nile, aptly named the Great Renaissance Dam, to which the regime in Cairo vehemently objected. A grand blunder by a national TV station in Egypt then showed live scenes from discussions in parliament in Cairo, where the majority of members advocated strongly for military action against Ethiopia, leaving the Morsi regime in a bind as their intent and purpose became exposed for the world to see.

The 6.000 MW project, which is thought to have the capacity to not only transform Ethiopia’s economy but also provide electricity to neighbours South Sudan, Sudan (Khartoum) and even to Kenya, is a do or die project for Ethiopia and work on temporarily diverting the Nile at the site where the dam is due to be constructed has started last week. Egypt’s Morsi left ‘all options open’ following the publicity debacle his regime suffered when members of his party were outspoken about blowing up the dam to ‘save our water’, with the result that the riparian states upstream have moved closer together to resist such aggression and extortion.

Ethiopa has now formally ratified the new Nile Treaty and the other water producing countries like Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi have equally left no doubt, that while they respect the right of Egypt to water from the Nile, it will be the framework of the new treaty and not, as Egypt and Khartoum continue to insist, the old agreements of 1929 and 1959 which will henceforth govern the use of the Nile waters and the waters of upstream lakes and contributory rivers.

Interesting were opinions emerging from conservation circles in Kenya, who have been hugely critical of Ethiopia’s plans for the Gibe III dam, which is bound to very likely cause irreparable damage to the Lake Turkana ecosystem: ‘We have no issues at all with the new Renaissance dam in Ethiopia. Perhaps our support for that dam can persuade Addis to review the issues we presented about Gibe III and the impact that has on Lake Turkana. We support Ethiopia’s right to build the new Renaissance dam and their right to decide on how to use their share of Nile waters. With 6.000 MW it will provide enough power for Ethiopia, South Sudan and even for us here in Kenya to purchase from Ethiopia. Our cooperation on the LAPSSET project too should signal to Addis that quid pro quo has its advantages so why not give back on the issue of Gibe III’ said a regular source in Nairobi, who in the past was often making comments when touching on the Gibe III project and its impact on the Lake Turkana ecosystem.

There are strong indications that alongside the meeting in Juba next week, the upstream riparian states will also confer over the threats made against Ethiopia and discuss contingencies and countermeasures, should Egypt continue to show open hostility against fellow member Ethiopia. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni also waded into the debate when he commented on the topic while speaking about the budget reading in Kampala. He was quoted in local media to have said: ‘I have seen statements in the media coming out of the government of Egypt about the commendable work of Ethiopia. What Ethiopia is doing is what governments in Africa should do.

The new government of Egypt should not repeat the mistakes of previous governments, the biggest threat to the Nile is not building hydropower dams, the biggest threat is the continued under development of countries in the tropics. No African wants to hurt Egypt, however, Egypt cannot continue to hurt black Africa’ coming out clearly on the side of Ethiopia and setting the stage for a partisan meeting of the Nile Basin Initiative ministers next week in Juba. Perhaps time for the regime in Cairo to sit back and reflect on how they are now perceived among the African upstream riparian states as a war mongering radical country, and to devise ways and means to cooperate instead of confront, to work with the African countries and not against them and how to formulate new partnerships instead of trampling the rights of African countries into the desert dust. Watch this space.


%d bloggers like this: